MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 bands. Among them, 16 thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.8 to 14.4 μm. After 16 years on-orbit operation, the electronic crosstalk of a few Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands develop substantial issues which cause biases in the EV brightness temperature measurements and surface feature contamination. The crosstalk effects on band 27 with center wavelength at 6.7 μm and band 29 at 8.5 μm increased significantly in recent years, affecting downstream products such as water vapor and cloud mask. The crosstalk issue can be observed from nearly monthly scheduled lunar measurements, from which the crosstalk coefficients can be derived. Most of MODIS thermal bands are saturated at moon surface temperatures and the development of an alternative approach is very helpful for verification. In this work, a physical model was developed to assess the crosstalk impact on calibration as well as in Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. This model was applied to Terra MODIS band 29 empirically for correction of Earth brightness temperature measurements. In the model development, the detector nonlinear response is considered. The impacts of the electronic crosstalk are assessed in two steps. The first step consists of determining the impact on calibration using the on-board blackbody (BB). Due to the detector nonlinear response and large background signal, both linear and nonlinear coefficients are affected by the crosstalk from sending bands. The crosstalk impact on calibration coefficients was calculated. The second step is to calculate the effects on the Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. The effects include those from affected calibration coefficients and the contamination of Earth view measurements. This model links the measurement bias with crosstalk coefficients, detector nonlinearity, and the ratio of Earth measurements between the sending and receiving bands. The correction of the electronic crosstalk can be implemented empirically from the processed bias at different brightness temperature. The implementation can be done through two approaches. As routine calibration assessment for thermal infrared bands, the trending over select Earth scenes is processed for all the detectors in a band and the band averaged bias is derived for certain time. In this case, the correction of an affected band can be made using the regression of the model with band averaged bias and then corrections of detector differences are applied. The second approach requires the trending for individual detectors and the bias for each detector is used for regression with the model. A test using the first approach was made for Terra MODIS band 29 with the biases derived from long-term trending of sea surface temperature and Dome-C surface temperature.
Tiejun Chang, Xiaoxiong (Jack) Xiong, Amit Angal, and Aisheng Wu, "BRDF characterization and calibration inter-comparison between Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS, and S-NPP VIIRS," Proc. SPIE 10000, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XX, 100000Z (Presented at SPIE Remote Sensing: September 27, 2016; Published: 19 October 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2239888.
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