Adjacency effect could be regarded as the convolution of the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) and the surface leaving radiance. Monte Carlo is a common method to simulate the atmospheric PSF. But it can’t obtain analytic expression and the meaningful results can be only acquired by statistical analysis of millions of data. A backward Monte Carlo algorithm was employed to simulate photon emitting and propagating in the atmosphere under different conditions. The PSF was determined by recording the photon-receiving numbers in fixed bin at different position. A multilayer feed-forward neural network with a single hidden layer was designed to learn the relationship between the PSF’s and the input condition parameters. The neural network used the back-propagation learning rule for training. Its input parameters involved atmosphere condition, spectrum range, observing geometry. The outputs of the network were photon-receiving numbers in the corresponding bin. Because the output units were too many to be allowed by neural network, the large network was divided into a collection of smaller ones. These small networks could be ran simultaneously on many workstations and/or PCs to speed up the training. It is important to note that the simulated PSF’s by Monte Carlo technique in non-nadir viewing angles are more complicated than that in nadir conditions which brings difficulties in the design of the neural network. The results obtained show that the neural network approach could be very useful to compute the atmospheric PSF based on the simulated data generated by Monte Carlo method.
Xiaoshan Ma, Haidong Wang, Ligang Li, Zhen Yang, and Xin Meng, "Neural network simulation of the atmospheric point spread function for the adjacency effect research," Proc. SPIE 10002, Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems XIX, 100020D (Presented at SPIE Remote Sensing: September 28, 2016; Published: 19 October 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2240916.
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