In this paper, five types of tissues, human enamel, human cortical bone, human trabecular bone, muscular tissue, and fatty tissue were imaged ex vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The specimens were prepared in blocks of 5 x 5 x 3 mm (width x length x height). The OCT imaging system was a swept source OCT system operating at wavelengths ranging between 1250 nm and 1360 nm with an average power of 18 mW and a scan rate of 50 to 100 kHz. The imaging probe was placed on top of a 2 x 2 cm stabilizing device to maintain a standard distance from the samples. Ten image samples from each type of tissue were obtained. To acquire images with minimum inhomogeneity, imaging was performed multiple times at different points. Based on the observed texture differences between OCT images of soft and hard tissues, spatial and spectral features were quantitatively extracted from the OCT images. The Radon transform from angles of 0 deg to 90 deg was computed, averaged over all the angles, normalized to peak at unity, and then fitted with Gaussian function. The mean absolute values of the spatial frequency components of the OCT image were considered as a feature, where 2-D fast Fourier transform (FFT) was done to OCT images. These OCT features can reliably differentiate between a range of hard and soft tissues, and could be extremely valuable in assisting dentists for in vivo evaluation of oral tissues and early detection of pathologic changes in tissues.
Hassan S. Salehi, Ali Kosa, Mina Mahdian, Saeid Moslehpour, Hisham Alnajjar, and Aditya Tadinada, "Characterization of human oral tissues based on quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE 10044, Lasers in Dentistry XXIII, 1004406 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2017; Published: 8 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253362.
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