Surgical resection is the most effective treatment strategy for solid tumors, but complete removal of the tumor is critical for post-surgical recovery/long-term survival and is dependent on correct identification of the tumor margin and accurate excision of microscopic residual tumor in the surgical field. Fluorescence image guided surgery is an emerging technique that has shown promise for intraoperative location of tumors and tumor margins. Current versions of such intraoperative fluorescence imaging, however, are generally limited to 2D near-surface images, i.e., without information about tumor depth. Here we present an intraoperative fluorescence imaging system for 3D volumetric imaging of tumors; the system uses spatial frequency domain diffuse optical tomography with an analytic inversion reconstruction method. The new instrument can derive depth-sensitive 3D tumor images at depths up to 1 cm, and it employs compact epi-imaging and illumination suitable for the operating room, with quasi-real-time image reconstruction for surgical visualization. We present experimental results with FDA-approved Indocynanine Green using an extensive array of tissue phantoms and in a pilot in-vivo study.
Sang Hoon Chong, Ashwin B. Parthasarathy, Venkaiah C. Kavuri, Frank A. Moscatelli, Sunil Singhal, and Arjun G. Yodh, "Intraoperative spatial frequency domain diffuse optical tomography with indo-cyanine green (ICG) fluorescence contrast (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10049, Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications III, 1004904 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250470.5370181490001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon