In the development of new near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dyes for image guided surgery, there is a need for new NIR
sensitive camera systems that can easily be adjusted to specific wavelength ranges in contrast the present clinical systems
that are only optimized for ICG. To test alternative camera systems, a setup was developed to mimic the fluorescence light
in a tissue phantom to measure the sensitivity and resolution. Selected narrow band NIR LED’s were used to illuminate a
6mm diameter circular diffuse plate to create uniform intensity controllable light spot (μW-mW) as target/source for NIR
camera’s. Layers of (artificial) tissue with controlled thickness could be placed on the spot to mimic a fluorescent ‘cancer’
embedded in tissue. This setup was used to compare a range of NIR sensitive consumer’s cameras for potential use in
image guided surgery. The image of the spot obtained with the cameras was captured and analyzed using ImageJ software.
Enhanced CCD night vision cameras were the most sensitive capable of showing intensities < 1 μW through 5 mm of
tissue. However, there was no control over the automatic gain and hence noise level. NIR sensitive DSLR cameras proved
relative less sensitive but could be fully manually controlled as to gain (ISO 25600) and exposure time and are therefore
preferred for a clinical setting in combination with Wi-Fi remote control. The NIR fluorescence testing setup proved to be
useful for camera testing and can be used for development and quality control of new NIR fluorescence guided surgery
Giota Georgiou, Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk, Albert van der Veen, and John H. Klaessens, "Setup for testing cameras for image guided surgery using a controlled NIR fluorescence mimicking light source and tissue phantom," Proc. SPIE 10049, Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications III, 100490E (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2017; Published: 8 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253267.
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