Optical imaging detecting Cerenkov-light is a promising approach for molecular imaging or radiation therapy, but it
was not yet conducted for proton therapy because light was not thought to be produced with the energy ranges because
they are lower than Cerenkov-light threshold. Contrary to this consensus, our research group found that luminescence
was emitted from water during proton-beam irradiation. The luminescence images of water phantoms showed clear
Bragg peak, and the measured proton ranges from the images were almost the same as those obtained with an ionization
chamber. The luminescence was also observed for carbon-ion and low energy X-ray photons.
Seiichi Yamamoto, "Discovery of luminescence of water during radiation irradiation and application for medical physics," Proc. SPIE 10049, Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications III, 1004910 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 30, 2017; Published: 8 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2255648.
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