General anesthetics are known to have profound effects on cerebral hemodynamics and neuronal activities. However, it remains a challenge to directly assess anesthetics-induced hemodynamic and oxygen-metabolic changes from the true baseline under wakefulness at the microscopic level, due to the lack of an enabling technology for high-resolution functional imaging of the awake mouse brain. To address this challenge, we have developed head-restrained photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), which enables simultaneous imaging of the cerebrovascular anatomy, total concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (CHb and sO2), and blood flow in awake mice. From these hemodynamic measurements, two important metabolic parameters, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), can be derived. Side-by-side comparison of the mouse brain under wakefulness and anesthesia revealed multifaceted cerebral responses to isoflurane, a volatile anesthetic widely used in preclinical research and clinical practice. Key observations include elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduced oxygen extraction and metabolism.
Rui Cao, Jun Li, Bo Ning, Naidi Sun, Tianxiong Wang, Zhiyi Zuo, and Song Hu, "Photoacoustic microscopy of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygen-metabolic responses to anesthetics," Proc. SPIE 10051, Neural Imaging and Sensing, 100510V (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 31, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251684.
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