Electrocorticography (ECoG) is a powerful tool for direct mapping of local field potentials from the brain surface. Progress in development of high-fidelity materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on thin conformal substrates such as parylene C enabled intimate contact with cortical surfaces and higher quality recordings from small volumes of neurons. Meanwhile, stimulation of neuronal activity is conventionally accomplished with electrical microstimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation that can be combined with ECoG to form the basis of bidirectional neural interface. However, these stimulation mechanisms are less controlled and primitively understood on the local and cellular levels. With the advent of optogenetics, the localization and specificity of neuronal stimulation and inhibition is possible. Therefore, the development of integrated devices that can merge the sensitivity of ECoG or depth recording with optogenetic tools can lead to newer frontiers in understanding the neuronal activity.
Herein, we introduce a hybrid device comprising flexible inorganic LED arrays integrated PEDOT:PSS/parylene C microelectrode arrays for high resolution bidirectional neuronal interfaces. The flexible inorganic LEDs have been developed by the metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of position-controlled GaN microLEDs on ZnO nanostructured templates pre-grown at precise locations on a graphene layer. By transferring it onto the microelectrode arrays, it can provides the individual electrical addressability by light stimulation patterns. We will present experimental and simulation results on the optoelectronic characteristics and light activation capability of flexible microLEDs and their evaluation in vivo.
Keundong Lee, Mehran Ganji, Lorraine Hossain, Yun Goo Ro, Sang Heon Lee, Jong-woo Park, Dongha Yoo, Jiyoung Yoon, Gyu-Chul Yi, and Shadi A. Dayeh, "Flexible inorganic light emitting diodes and transparent PEDOT:PSS/Parylene C for simultaneous optogenetics and electrocorticography (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10052, Optogenetics and Optical Manipulation, 1005208 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252926.5371339442001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon