Ocular infection is a serious eye disease that could lead to blindness without prompt and proper treatment. In pathology, ocular infection is caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi or viruses. The essential prerequisite for the optimal treatment of ocular infection is to identify the microorganism causing infection early as each type of microorganism requires a different therapeutic approach. The clinical procedure for identifying the microorganism species causing ocular infection includes Gram staining (for bacteria)/microscopy (for fungi) and the culture of corneal surface scraping, or aqueous and vitreous smear samples taken from the surface of infected eyes. The culture procedure is labor intensive and expensive. Moreover, culturing is time consuming, which usually takes a few days or even weeks. Such a long delay in diagnosis could result in the exacerbation of patients’ symptoms, the missing of the optimal time frame for initiating treatment and subsequently the rising cost for disease management. Raman spectroscopy has been shown highly effective for non-invasive identification of both fungi and bacteria qualitatively. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of identifying the microorganisms of ocular infection and quantifying the concentrations using Raman spectroscopy by measuring not only gram negative and gram positive bacteria but also infected cornea. By applying a modified orthogonal projection approach, the relative concentration of each bacteria species could be quantified. Our results indicate the great potential of Raman spectroscopy as an alternative tool for non-invasive diagnosis of ocular infection and could play a significantly role in future ophthalmology.
Yanru Bai, Keren Chen, Arti Mishra, Roger Beuerman, and Quan Liu, "Feasibility of quantitatively diagnosing cornea infection using Raman spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10054, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV, 1005407 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2017; Published: 18 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250915.5371877823001.
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