Multi-Spectral Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (ms-TRFS) can provide label-free real-time feedback on tissue composition and pathology during surgical procedures by resolving the fluorescence decay dynamics of the tissue. Recently, an ms-TRFS system has been developed in our group, allowing for either point-spectroscopy fluorescence lifetime measurements or dynamic raster tissue scanning by merging a 450 nm aiming beam with the pulsed fluorescence excitation light in a single fiber collection. In order to facilitate an augmented real-time display of fluorescence decay parameters, the lifetime values are back projected to the white light video. The goal of this study is to develop a 3D real-time surface reconstruction aiming for a comprehensive visualization of the decay parameters and providing an enhanced navigation for the surgeon. Using a stereo camera setup, we use a combination of image feature matching and aiming beam stereo segmentation to establish a 3D surface model of the decay parameters. After camera calibration, texture-related features are extracted for both camera images and matched providing a rough estimation of the surface. During the raster scanning, the rough estimation is successively refined in real-time by tracking the aiming beam positions using an advanced segmentation algorithm. The method is evaluated for excised breast tissue specimens showing a high precision and running in real-time with approximately 20 frames per second. The proposed method shows promising potential for intraoperative navigation, i.e. tumor margin assessment. Furthermore, it provides the basis for registering the fluorescence lifetime maps to the tissue surface adapting it to possible tissue deformations.
Jakob Unger, Joao Lagarto, Jennifer Phipps, Dinglong Ma, Julien Bec, Jonathan Sorger, Gregory Farwell, Richard Bold, and Laura Marcu, "Three-dimensional online surface reconstruction of augmented fluorescence lifetime maps using photometric stereo (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10054, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV, 100540F (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 30, 2017; Published: 18 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253229.5371718625001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon