Patients with end stage renal disease are dependent on dialysis. In most outpatient centers, the dialysate is prepared with a fixed electrolyte concentration without taking into account the inter-individual differences of essential electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium). This one-size fits all approach can lead to acute and chronic cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients. On-line monitoring of these essential electrolytes is an important physiological step towards patient specific dialysate leading to individualized treatment. Currently, changes in electrolyte concentrations are indirectly measured by conductivity measurements, which are not ion- specific. In this paper, we present a novel optical sensor for on-line monitoring of sodium concentrations in dialysate. This sensor is ion-specific and can detect up to a single ion. The working principle is based on the selective fluorescence quenching of photo-induced electron transfer (PET) molecules. The PET molecules when complexed with sodium ions start fluorescing upon laser excitation. The emission intensity is directly correlated to the sodium concentration. To prove the working principle, a micro-optofluidic device has been fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with integrated optical fibers for fluorescence light collection. The PET molecules are covalently grafted in the PDMS microchannel for continuous monitoring of the sodium dialysate concentrations. The experimental setup consists of a laser module (λ=450nm) operating at 4.5mW, a syringe pump to precisely control the sample flow and a spectrometer for fluorescence collection. The performance of the sensor has been evaluated for sodium ions ranging from 0-50mM. A clear signal and good response time was observed.
Manoj K. Sharma, Arjan J. H. Frijns, Rajesh Mandamparambil, Jeroen P. Kooman, and David M. J. Smeulders, "Ion-selective optical sensor for continuous on-line monitoring of dialysate sodium during dialysis," Proc. SPIE 10058, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVII, 1005804 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2017; Published: 28 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251923.
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