A focused laser beam at wavelength of strong water absorption at 1.94 μm can be a good scalpel for precision soft tissue surgery. A fiber Bragg grating-based, all-fiber, continuous-wave as well as modulated, cladding pumped, thulium-doped fiber laser at 1.94 μm has been configured to deliver up to 10 W of laser power under pumping at 793 nm having an efficiency of 32 %. The laser was exposed to freshly sacrificed chicken breast at different power level and exposure time. The formalin-fixed samples were examined by microscopy to identify the ablation region, carbonization and necrosis region for laser parameter optimization.
Atasi Pal, Debasis Pal, Sourav Das Chowdhury, and Ranjan Sen, "All-fiber laser at 1.94 µm: effect on soft tissue," Proc. SPIE 10062, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXVIII, 100620A (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 30, 2017; Published: 15 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251970.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon