This work explores light delivery optimization for a photoacoustic surgical system previously proposed to provide real-time, intraoperative visualization of the internal carotid arteries hidden by bone during minimally invasive neurosurgeries. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study 3D light propagation in tissue. For a 2.4 mm diameter drill shaft and 2.9 mm spherical drill tip, the optimal fiber distance from the drill shaft was 2 mm, determined from the maximum normalized fluence seen by the artery. A single fiber was insufficient to deliver light to arteries separated by a minimum of 8 mm. Using similar drill geometry and the optimal 2 mm fiber-to-drill shaft distance, Zemax ray tracing simulations were employed to propagate a 950 nm wavelength Gaussian beam through one or more 600 μm core diameter optical fibers, and the resulting optical beam profile was detected on the representative bone surface. For equally spaced fibers, a single merged optical profile formed with 7 or more fibers, determined by thresholding the resulting light profile images at 1/e times the maximum intensity. The corresponding spot size was larger than that of a single fiber transmitting the same input energy, thus reducing the fluence delivered to the sphenoid bone and enabling higher energies within safety limits. A prototype was designed and built based on these optimization parameters. The methodology we used to optimize our light delivery system to surround surgical tools is generalizable to multiple interventional photoacoustic applications.
Blackberrie Eddins and Muyinatu A. Lediju Bell, "Optimizing light delivery for a photoacoustic surgical system," Proc. SPIE 10064, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2017, 100640J (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2017; Published: 3 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253521.
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