Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men for the past decades. PCa has a relatively low progression rate but the 5 year survival rate decreases dramatically once the cancer has metastasized. Differentiating aggressive from indolent PCa is critical for improving PCa patient outcomes and preventing metastasis and death. Prostate biopsy is the standard procedure for evaluating the presence and aggressiveness of PCa. The microarchitecture of the biopsied tissues visualized by histology process is evaluated by pathologists and assigned a Gleason score as a quantification of the aggressiveness. In our previous study, we have shown that photoacoustic spectral analysis (PASA) is capable of quantifying the Gleason scores of the H&E stained human prostate tissues. In this study, we attempt to assess the Gleason scores without any staining by taking advantage of the strong optical absorption of nucleic acid at ultraviolet wavelengths. PA signals were generated by wide field illumination at 266 nm and received by a hydrophone with a bandwidth of 0-20 MHz. DU145 prostate cancer cells at the concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.05, 0.025 and 0.0125 million per cm3 simulating those in cancerous and normal tissues were first attempted. The measurements were repeated for 10 times at each concentration. A correlation of 0.86 was observed between the PA signal intensities and the cell concentrations. Human PCa tissues with Gleason score 6, 7 and 8 and normal tissues were assessed. With 11 samples, a correlation of 0.89 was found between the Gleason scores and PASA slopes.
Guan Xu, Mandy A. Davis, Javed Siddiqui, Wan-yu Chao, Scott A. Tomlins, John T. Wei, and Xueding Wang, "Label free aggressive prostate cancer identification with ultraviolet photoacoustic spectral analysis (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10064, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2017, 100641H (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 31, 2017; Published: 24 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252245.5379284491001.
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