Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highly-selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death (ICD) only in target-positive, mAb-IR700-bound cancer cells. This cell death occurs as early as 1 minute after exposure to NIR light. Meanwhile, immediately adjacent target-negative cells are unharmed. Dynamic 3D-microscopy of live tumor cells undergoing NIR-PIT showed rapid swelling in treated cells immediately after light exposure, followed by irreversible morphologic changes such as bleb formation, and rupture of vesicles within several minutes. Furthermore, biological markers of ICD including relocation of HSP70/90 and calreticulin, and release of ATP and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), were clearly detected immediately after NIR-PIT. When NIR-PIT was performed in a mixture of cancer cells and immature dendritic cells, maturation of immature dendritic cells was strongly induced rapidly after NIR-PIT. Alternatively, NIR-PIT can also target negative regulatory immune cells such as Treg only in the tumor bed. Treg targeting NIR-PIT against CD25 can deplete >80% of Treg in tumor bed within 20 min that induces activation of tumor cell-specific CD8+-T and NK cells within 1.5 hour, and then these activated cells killed cancer cells in local tumor within 1 day and also in distant tumors of the same cell origin within 2 days. In summary, cancer cell-targeting and immuno-suppressor cell-targeting NIR-PITs effectively induce innate and acquired immunity specifically against cancer cells growing in patients, respectively.
Hisataka Kobayashi, "Near infrared photoimmunotherapy rapidly elicits specific host immunity against cancer cells (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10065, Biophotonics and Immune Responses XII, 1006507 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 30, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2249943.5379284539001.
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