In this study, the AuNP k-shell fluorescence spectra were measured by using a 100 mm long collimator to improve the detectability. The AuNPs were suspended in deionized water at different concentrations. The AuNP suspensions were excited by a micro focal spot x-ray tube with 130 kVp, 300 μA x-ray exposures. The emissions of the AuNP fluorescence were measured by a spectrometer located with an angle of 90 degrees with respect to the excitation beam. The fluorescence acquisition durations for each concentration mode were 3000 s. A 1.0 mm Pb filter and a 1 mm Al filter were utilized to optimize excitation beam and fluorescence emission, respectively. As a result, the k-shell fluorescence peaks, 66.99 keV and 68.80 keV of AuNP, were measured and observed in 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/mL concentration modes. The linear relationship between the AuNP suspension concentrations and the number of photons of the fluorescence peaks were observed in the range of 0.1–4.0 mg/mL. The results of experimental measurements demonstrated up to 0.1 mg/mL (0.01 % in weight concentration) detectability.
Di Wu, Molly D. Wong, Yuhua Li, Muhammad U. Ghani, Bin Zheng, Wei R. Chen, and Hong Liu, "Measurements of gold nanoparticle concentration with K-shell x-ray fluorescence spectrum," Proc. SPIE 10065, Biophotonics and Immune Responses XII, 100650M (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 31, 2017; Published: 20 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2257147.
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