Femtosecond-laser pulses can assist to transfect cells by creating transient holes in the cell membrane, thus making them temporarily permeable for extraneous genetic material. This procedure offers the advantage of being completely “virus free” since no viruses are used for the delivery and integration of gene factors into the host genome and, thereby, avoiding serious side effects which so far prevent clinical application. Unfortunately, focusing of the laser radiation onto individual cell membranes is quite elaborate and time consuming. Regarding these obstacles, we briefly review two optical setups for fast, efficient and high throughput laser-assisted cell transfection based on femtosecond laser pulse excitation. The first setup aims at assisting the transfection of adherent cells. It comprises of a modified laser-scanning microscope with beamshaping optics as well as home-made software to automate the detection, targeting and laser-irradiation process. The second setup aims at laser-assisted transfection of non-adherent cells in suspension which move in a continuous flow through the laser focus region. The setup allows to address a large number of cells, however, with much lower transfection efficiency than the individual-cell targeting approach.
Hans Georg Breunig, Aisada Uchugonova, Ana Batista, and Karsten König, "Femtosecond-laser assisted cell reprogramming," Proc. SPIE 10068, Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XV, 1006811 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 01, 2017; Published: 16 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252088.
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