SPAD (single-photon avalanche diode) arrays are single-photon imagers that can provide unparalleled timeresolved sensing performance. Since their inception in standard CMOS technologies (2003), a host of architectures and target applications have been explored, ranging from simple pixel arrays, with off-chip data processing electronics, to fully integrated “smart” imagers with in-pixel time-stamping electronics and/or on-chip data processing fabric. Applications include (endoscopic) FLIM, (multi-beam multiphoton) FLIM-FRET, SPIMFCS, time-resolved Raman, NIROT, super-resolution microscopy, and PET, to name a few. We will review some representative sensors and applications, the corresponding challenges, and provide an outlook on the future of this fascinating technology
Claudio Bruschini, Harald Homulle, and Edoardo Charbon, "Ten years of biophotonics single-photon SPAD imager applications: retrospective and outlook," Proc. SPIE 10069, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XVII, 100691S (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 01, 2017; Published: 21 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2256247.
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