Blood glucose monitoring has been realised by biosensors in combination with micro-dialysis, using either subcutaneously or intravascularly implanted catheters. Another alternative is ex-vivo micro-dialysis of continuously sampled heparinized whole blood available from the patient even under critical care conditions. However, most devices suffer from inaccuracies due to variable recovery rates. Infrared spectrometry has been suggested for analyte quantification, since besides glucose other clinically relevant analytes can be simultaneously determined that are, e.g., important for intensive care patients. Perfusates with acetate and mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers (internal standards). In contrast to the previously used acetate, an almost linear dependency between mannitol loss and glucose recovery was observed for micro-dialysis of glucose spiked aqueous albumin solutions or porcine heparinized whole blood when testing flat membranes within a custom-made micro-dialysator. By this, a straightforward compensation of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring is possible. The combination of microdialysis with infrared spectrometry provides a calibration-free assay for accurate continuous glucose monitoring, as reference spectra of dialysate components can be a-priori allocated.
Thorsten Vahlsing, Sven Delbeck, Janpeter Budde, Dieter Ihrig, Steffen Leonhardt, and H. Michael Heise, "Reliable glucose monitoring by ex-vivo blood microdialysis and infrared spectrometry for patients in critical care," Proc. SPIE 10072, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVII: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 100720D (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 30, 2017; Published: 17 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253086.
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