Liquid lenses are used to correct for low order wavefront aberrations. Electrowetting liquid lenses can nowadays control defocus and astigmatism effectively, so they start being used for ophthalmology applications. To increase the performance and applicability, we introduce a new driving mechanism to create, detect and correct higher order aberrations using standing waves on the liquid interface.
The speed of a liquid lens is in general limited, because the liquid surface cannot follow fast voltage changes, while providing a spherical surface. Surface waves are created instead and with them undesired aberrations. We try to control those surface waves to turn them into an effective wavefront shaping tool.
We introduce a model, which treats the liquid lens as a circular vibrating membrane with adjusted boundary conditions. Similar to tunable acoustic gradient (TAG) lenses, the nature of the surface modes are predicted to be Bessel functions. Since Bessel functions are a full set of orthogonal basis functions any surface can be created as a linear combination of different Bessel functions.
The model was investigated experimentally in two setups. First the point spread functions were studied and compared to a simulation of the intensity distribution created by Fresnel propagated Bessel surfaces. Second the wavefronts were measured directly using a spatial light modulator. The surface resonance frequencies confirm the predictions made by the model as well as the wavefront measurements. By superposition of known surface modes, it is possible to create new surface shapes, which can be used to simulate and measure the human eye.
Matthias Strauch, Sander Konijnenberg, Yifeng Shao, and H. Paul Urbach, "Wavefront shaping with an electrowetting liquid lens using surface harmonics (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10073, Adaptive Optics and Wavefront Control for Biological Systems III, 1007304 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2017; Published: 24 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252854.5380600103001.
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