Cancer cell killing efficiencies based on the photothermal effect caused by the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and the photodynamic effect caused by the singlet oxygen generation of a photosensitizer rely on the cell uptake efficiency of metal NP and photosensitizer. Perforation and heating can increase cell membrane permeability and hence can increase the cell uptake efficiency of NPs and drugs. In this paper, we demonstrate the variations of the cell damage efficiency under the illuminations of different lasers, which can produce mainly photothermal effect, mainly photodynamic effect, and mixed effect, when a pre-perforation and a pre-heating processes are applied. Au nanorings (NRIs) with their localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength around 1064 nm are used. The perforation process is undertaken by illuminating the cell samples by a femtosecond laser at 1064 nm with the power density lower than the cell damage threshold intensity. The heating process is implemented by illuminating cells with a low power continuous laser at 1064 nm. It is found that with the pre-perforation and pre-heating processes, the photodynamic effect is enhanced because the internalized Au NRI number and hence the internalized photosensitizer (AlPcS) molecule number are increased. However, the photothermal effect can be reduced because the adsorbed Au NRIs on cell membrane are effectively internalized during the pre-perforation and pre-heating processes. The photothermal effect is more effective when Au NRIs are adsorbed on cell membrane.
Jen-Hung Hsiao, Jian-He Yu, Yulu He, Yi-Chou Tu, Wei-Hsiang Hua, Meng Chun Low, Cheng-Che Hsieh, Yean-Woei Kiang, and Chih-Chung Yang, "Effects of cancer cell permeability control on the efficiency of cell damage through surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticle (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10078, Colloidal Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications XII, 100780D (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2017; Published: 24 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2249544.5381802539001.
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