The use of a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with the operation wavelength around 800 nm to scan SCC4 cancer cells under different laser illumination conditions is demonstrated. The cancer cells are incubated with Au nanorings (NRIs), which are linked with photosensitizer, AlPcS, for them to be up-taken by the cells. Two Au NRI samples of different geometries for inducing localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance around 1310 and 1064 nm are used. Four different lasers are utilized for illuminating the cells under OCT scanning, including 1310-nm continuous (cw) laser, 1064-nm cw laser, 1064-nm femtosecond (fs) laser, and 660-nm cw laser. The 1310- and 1064-nm cw lasers mainly produce the photothermal effect through the LSP resonance of Au NRIs for damaging the observed cells. Besides the photothermal effect, the 1064-nm fs laser can produce strong two-photon absorption through the assistance of the LSP resonance of Au NRI for exciting AlPcS to effectively generate singlet oxygen and damage the observed cells. The 660-nm laser can excite AlPcS through single-photon absorption for generating singlet oxygen and damaging the observed cells. With the photothermal effect, the observed cells can be killed through the process of necrosis. Through the generation of singlet oxygen, the cell membrane can be preserved and the interior substances are solidified to become a hard body of strong scattering. In this situation, the cells are killed through the apoptosis process. Illuminated by the 660-nm cw laser, a process of interior substance escape is observed through high-speed OCT scanning.
Shih-Yang Chen, Yulu He, Cheng-Che Hsieh, Wei-Hsiang Hua, Meng Chun Low, Meng-Tsan Tsai, Yean-Woei Kiang, and Chih-Chung Yang, "Observation of the death process of cancer cells killed through surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoring with optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10078, Colloidal Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications XII, 1007810 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 30, 2017; Published: 24 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2249547.5381802553001.
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