The general theory of first-order spatiotemporal distortions provides a very helpful framework for understanding beam couplings in ultrashort pulses. The theory describes both real and imaginary coupling terms between 4 pairs of dimensions. The imaginary coupling terms are difficult to understand and visualize because they are difficult to plot in a meaningful way. In general, plotting the spatiotemporal intensity and phase of pulses in in two and three dimensions is a difficult problem. Our work on pulse visualization provides an unprecedented opportunity to study spatiotemporal couplings in ultrashort pulses. We create movies of pulses as they would appear naturally, with all of their evolving spatial, temporal, and spectral structure readily apparent.
Michelle Rhodes, Zhe Guang, and Rick Trebino, "Spatiotemporal coupling effects in ultrashort pulses and their visualization," Proc. SPIE 10089, Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications II, 100890I (Presented at SPIE LASE: January 30, 2017; Published: 22 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251632.
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