A rapid, mask-less deposition technique for the deposition of conductive tracks to nano- and micro-devices has been developed. The process uses a 405 nm wavelength laser diode for the direct deposition of tungsten tracks on silicon substrates via laser assisted chemical vapour deposition. Unlike lithographic processes this technique is single step and does not require chemical masks that may contaminate the substrate. To demonstrate the process, tungsten was deposited from tungsten hexacarbonyl precursors to produce conductive tracks with widths of 1.7-28 μm and heights of 0.05-35 μm at laser scan speeds up to 40 μm/s. The highest volumetric deposition rate achieved is 1×104 μm3/s, three orders of magnitude higher than that of focused ion beam deposition and on par with a 515 nm wavelength argon ion laser previously reported as the laser source. The microstructure and elemental composition of the deposits are comparable to that of largearea chemical vapour deposition methods using the same chemical precursor. The contact resistance and track resistance of the deposits has been measured using the transfer length method to be 205 μΩ cm. The deposition temperature has been estimated at 334 °C from a laser heat transfer model accounting for temperature dependent optical and physical properties of the substrate. The peak temperatures achieved on silicon and other substrates are higher than the thermal dissociation temperature of numerous precursors, indicating that this technique can also be used to deposit other materials such as gold and platinum on various substrates.
Jyi Sheuan Ten, Martin Sparkes, and William O'Neill, "High speed, mask-less, laser controlled deposition of microscale tungsten tracks using 405 nm wavelength diode laser," Proc. SPIE 10091, Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XXII, 100910C (Presented at SPIE LASE: January 30, 2017; Published: 20 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251951.
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