Photothermal manipulation of cells via heating of gold nanoparticles has proven to be an efficient tool for molecular delivery into cells via cell perforation with short laser pulses. We investigated a potential extension of this technique for cell stimulation of cardiomyocytes using a 532 nm and 850 ps laser system and a surface concentration of 0.5 μg/cm2 of 200 nm gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were unspecifically attached to the cardiomyocytes after an incubation period of three hours. The laser irradiation leads to a temperature rise directly at the particles of several hundred degrees K which evokes bubble formation and membrane perforation. We examined the effect of laser based photothermal manipulation at different laser powers, with different calcium concentrations, and for a cardiomyocyte-like cell line (HL1 cells), neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. Fast calcium oscillations in HL1 cells were observed in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium and most pronounced in the area next to the laser spot after irradiation. Within the laser spot, in particular high laser powers led to a single rise in calcium over a time period of several seconds. These results were confirmed in stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. In the presence of normal and high calcium concentrations, the spontaneous contraction frequency increased after laser irradiation in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Consequently, gold nanoparticle mediated photothermal cell manipulation via pulsed lasers may serve as a potential pacemaker-technique in regenerative approaches, next to optogenetics.
Stefan Kalies, Lara Gentemann, Michelle Coffee, Robert Zweigerdt, Dag Heinemann, and Alexander Heisterkamp, "Photothermal gold nanoparticle mediated stimulation of cardiomyocyte beating (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10094, Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII, 100940J (Presented at SPIE LASE: January 30, 2017; Published: 21 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2249834.5389862314001.
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