Kerr-lens self-channelling of femtosecond laser light offers a novel high-aspect geometry for laser processing inside transparent materials. In glass materials, the laser filaments enable white-light continuum generation, scribing, nanochannel formation, and refractive index modification. In the present work, refractive index matching oils were applied around optical fiber to eliminate astigmatic aberration and thereby form highly symmetric and uniform filaments selectively in the cladding or core waveguide of standard single-mode optical fibre (SMF-28). Under tight focusing, long filaments exceeding 20 um length were formed with single pulses to sub-micron diameter. Arrays of 0.5 um spaced filaments are verified by formation of strong fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). Flexible positioning of the filament arrays within the fiber core offers wide scope for coupling to cladding and radiation modes and creating new types of in-fibre optical devices.
Erden Ertorer, Moez Haque, Jianzhao Li, and Peter R. Herman, "Femtosecond filaments for rapid and flexible writing of Fiber-Bragg grating (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10094, Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XVII, 1009415 (Presented at SPIE LASE: January 31, 2017; Published: 21 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2257545.5389862327001.
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