Presently, there exists no reliable in-situ time-resolved method that selectively isolates both the recombination and escape times relevant to photocurrent generation in the ultrafast regime. Transport based measurements lack the required time resolution, while purely optical measurement give a convoluted weighted-average of all electronic dynamics, offering no selectivity for photocurrent generating pathways. Recently, the ultrafast photocurrent (U-PC) autocorrelation method has successfully measured the rate limiting electronic relaxation processes in materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials. Here, we unambiguously derive and experimentally confirm a generic U-PC response function by simultaneously resolving the transient absorption (TA) and U-PC response for highly-efficient (48% IQE at 0 bias) WSe2 devices and twisted bilayer graphene. Surprisingly, both optical TA and electrical U-PC responses give the same E-field-dependent electronic escape and recombination rates. These rates further accurately quantify a material’s intrinsic PC generation efficiency. We demonstrate that the chirality of the incident light impacts the U-PC kinetics, suggesting such measurements directly access the ultrafast dynamics need to complex electronic physics such as the valley-Hall effect. By combining E-field dependent ultrafast photocurrent with transient absorption microscopy, we have selectively imaged the dominant kinetic bottlenecks that inhibit photocurrent production in devices made from stacked few-layer TMD materials. This provides a new methodology to intelligently select materials that intrinsically avoid recombination bottlenecks and maximize photocurrent yield.
Matthew W. Graham, "Selective resolution of photocurrent generating pathways in transition metal dichalcogenides by ultrafast microscopy (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10102, Ultrafast Phenomena and Nanophotonics XXI, 101020R (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 31, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2248908.5391659170001.
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