A time-domain approach to quantum electrodynamics is presented, covering the entire mid-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges. Ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling with few-femtosecond laser pulses allows direct detection of the vacuum fluctuations of the electric field in free space [1,2]. Besides the Planck and electric field fundamental constants, the variance of the ground state is determined solely by the inverse of the four-dimensional space-time volume over which a measurement or physical process integrates. Therefore, we can vary the contribution of multi-terahertz vacuum fluctuations and discriminate against the trivial shot noise due to the constant flux of near-infrared probe photons. Subcycle temporal resolution based on a nonlinear phase shift provides signals from purely virtual photons for accessing the ground-state wave function without amplification to finite intensity.
Recently, we have succeeded in generation and analysis of mid-infrared squeezed transients with quantum noise patterns that are time-locked to the intensity envelope of the probe pulses. We find subcycle temporal positions with a noise level distinctly below the bare vacuum which serves as a direct reference. Delay times with increased differential noise indicate generation of highly correlated quantum fields by spontaneous parametric fluorescence. Our time-domain approach offers a generalized understanding of spontaneous emission processes as a consequence of local anomalies in the co-propagating reference frame modulating the quantum vacuum, in combination with the boundary conditions set by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
 C. Riek et al., Science 350, 420 (2015)
 A. S. Moskalenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263601 (2015)
Alfred Leitenstorfer, "Subcycle quantum physics (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10102, Ultrafast Phenomena and Nanophotonics XXI, 1010216 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2254953.5391659179001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon