In the past decade, there have been many studies on metamaterial based chemical and biological sensors due to their exotic resonance properties in microwave ranges. However, in spite of their non-destructive and highly sensitive properties, they have suffered from the use of bulky and expensive external measurement systems like a network analyzer for measuring resonance properties in the microwave regime. In this study, to increase accessibility of the metamaterial-based sensors, we propose a novel wireless chemical sensor system based on energy harvesting metamaterials at the microwave frequencies. The proposed metamaterial chemical sensor consists of a single split ring resonator and rectifier circuit to harvest the energy at the specific frequency, so that the chemical composition of the specific solution can be distinguished by the proposed metamaterial sensor by using the resonance property between the source antenna and the metamaterial which induces the variation in the energy harvesting rate of our sensor system. In our experimental setup, we used a 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi system as a source antenna. To verify the chemical sensitivity of the proposed sensor intuitively, we adopted a light emitting diode as an indicator of which luminescence is proportional to the energy harvesting rate determined by the ratio of ethanol and water in their binary mixture. With these results, it can be expected that our metamaterial-based wireless sensor can pave the way to the miniaturized wireless sensor systems and can be applied to not only for the chemical fluidic sensors but also for other dynamic environment sensing systems.
Wonwoo Lee, Yonghee Jung, Hyunseung Jung, and Hojin Lee, "Wireless chemical sensor system based on electromagnetically energy-harvesting metamaterials (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10103, Terahertz, RF, Millimeter, and Submillimeter-Wave Technology and Applications X, 1010311 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2017; Published: 19 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251318.5391659209001.
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