A wafer fused GaP/GaAs waveguide was developed for THz QCLs to achieve high confinement factor benefiting from its lower refractive index in THz regime. The modal simulation of several waveguide structures using COMSOL showed an increase of confinement factor up to 2 as compared to regular waveguide; however it also resulted in high losses. Experimental results showed good electric characteristics but poor optical performance, which is mainly due to the degradation of crystal quality after high temperature process, confirmed by stress analysis and XRD. Therefore, a low temperature fusion process is necessary to fabricate GaP/GaAs THz waveguide.
Neelima Chandrayan, Xifeng Qian, and William Goodhue, "Waveguide development using wafer fused GaP/GaAs in THz quantum cascade lasers," Proc. SPIE 10103, Terahertz, RF, Millimeter, and Submillimeter-Wave Technology and Applications X, 101031S (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 02, 2017; Published: 24 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252716.
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