We report the spectroscopy of crystalline waveguide amplifiers operating in the telecom C-band. Thin films of erbiumdoped gadolinium lutetium potassium double tungstate, KGdxLuyEr1-x-y (WO4)2, are grown by liquid- phase epitaxy onto undoped potassium yttrium double tungstate (KYW) substrates and micro-structured by Ar+- beam etching. Channel waveguides with erbium concentrations between 0.45–6.35 × 1020 cm-3 are characterized. The transition cross-sections of interest are estimated. The effect of energy-transfer up-conversion (ETU) is experimentally investigated. Microscopic and macroscopic ETU parameters are extracted from a simultaneous analysis of 20 decay curves of luminescence on the transition 4I13/2 → 4I13/2. The correlation between ETU and the doping concentration is studied. Pump excited-state absorption (ESA) on the transition 4I11/2 → 4F7/2 is investigated via a direct ESA measurement using a double-modulation pump-probe technique. The effect of ESA is studied for different pump wavelengths. The pump wavelength of 984.5 nm is found to be favorable for the complete range of erbium concentrations.
Sergio A. Vázquez-Córdova, Shanmugam Aravazhi, Christos Grivas, Alexander M. Heuer, Christian Kränkel, Yean-Sheng Yong, Sonia M. García-Blanco, Jennifer L. Herek, and Markus Pollnau, "Spectroscopy of erbium-doped potassium double tungstate waveguides," Proc. SPIE 10106, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXI, 1010604 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 30, 2017; Published: 16 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252488.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon