In this paper, a surface plasmon resonance sensor for the detection of refractive index variation is presented. A novel waveguide type surface plasmon resonance sensing configuration with focal length variable liquid lens is introduced. The method of surface plasmon resonance sensor is based on the waveguide type with incident angle variation. The incident angle is varied by using an electrowetting liquid lens which is possible to actively change focal length as applying voltage. The optical system, which is adapted to electrowetting lens can continuously change the incident angle of light from 73 to 78 degrees with compact size. The surface plasmon waves are excited between metal and dielectric interface. The sensing surfaces are prepared by a coating of gold metal above high refractive index glass substrate. The incident light which is 532nm monochromatic light source passes through a noble metal coated substrate to detect intensity with incident angle variation. An analysis to distinguish the contribution of light with various incident angle is focused on the angular characteristics of the surface plasmon sensor under wavelength interrogation. The resonance angle is determined corresponding to sensing material refractive index with high sensitivity. The result suggests that the performance of surface plasmon resonance sensor can be improved by real time varying incident angle. From this presented study, it provides a different approach for angular interrogation surface plasmon resonance sensor and can be miniaturized for a portable device.
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