As parallel optics data rates transition from 10 Gbps to 25 Gbps and beyond, VCSELs and photodiodes (PDs) are evolving to support the higher transmission rates. In order to maintain system performance as speeds increase and tolerances become tighter, an improved method is needed to efficiently couple VCSEL/PD array optical outputs to fiber optic networks. The mechanical-optical interface (MOI) is a monolithic component with an array of collimating lenses designed for efficient coupling between the on-board active components and a detachable fiber optic connector. This paper describes the design and implementation of a next generation MOI to match high speed VCSEL/PD requirements. Improvements to an earlier design were made to accommodate a wider variety of transceiver architectures by taking into account chip driver and wire-bond clearance requirements, while also optimizing the optical design to maximize coupling performance. Monte Carlo simulation results and the sensitivity analysis used to optimize optical performance with respect to VCSEL/PD alignment and coupling requirements are presented. Empirical testing results are shown to validate the optical model and subsequent system performance; eye-diagram results of a 25 Gbps error-free link are provided across a broad operating temperature range. Environmental and mechanical testing of the component after alignment and adhesion to the circuit substrate validates part and epoxy interaction and performance.
Dirk Schoellner, Sharon Lutz, Ke Wang, Dan Kurtz, Terrence Kerr, and Mike Wang, "A mechanical-optical interface for 25+ Gbps VCSEL/PD fiber coupling," Proc. SPIE 10109, Optical Interconnects XVII, 101090C (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 30, 2017; Published: 20 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250894.
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