Gallium Nitride (GaN) materials are the backbone of emerging solid state lighting. To date, GaN research has been primarily focused on hexagonal phase devices due to the natural crystallization. This approach limits the output power and efficiency of LEDs, particularly in the green spectrum. However, GaN can also be engineered to be in cubic phase. Cubic GaN has a lower bandgap (~200 meV) than hexagonal GaN that enables green LEDs much easily. Besides, cubic GaN has more isotropic properties (smaller effective masses, higher carrier mobility, higher doping efficiency, and higher optical gain than hexagonal GaN), and cleavage planes. Due to phase instability, however, cubic phase materials and devices have remained mostly unexplored. Here we review a new method of cubic phase GaN generation: Hexagonal-to-cubic phase transition, based on novel nano-patterning. We report a new crystallographic modelling of this hexagonal-to-cubic phase transition and systematically study the effects of nano-patterning on the GaN phase transition via transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction experiments. In summary, silicon-integrated cubic phase GaN light emitters offer a unique opportunity for exploration in next generation photonics.
C. Bayram and R. Liu, "Polarization-free integrated gallium-nitride photonics," Proc. SPIE 10111, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XIV, 101110Y (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 30, 2017; Published: 27 January 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251607.
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