We present Time-of-Flight (TOF) distance, velocity and acceleration characterisation of a multi-event Time-to-Digital- Converter (TDC) optical sensor featuring a 32x32 Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array, a 14 GS/s TDC and on-chip histogram generation. Events are continuously recorded on-chip in 264 70 ps-wide histogram bins. High TDC throughput enables the device to be operated in Doppler mode with pulse-trains moving at hypervelocity speeds relative to the operational sensor frequency. Electrical frequency-detuned signals of 50 kHz are resolved by the TDC module. Optical frequency-detuned signals of 1 kHz are resolved, corresponding to a TOF velocity resolution of 15.8 km/s. Linear, sine-wave, and chirp frequency modulation techniques are used to demonstrate these characteristics.
Neil Finlayson, Tarek Al Abbas, Francescopaolo Mattioli Della Rocca, Oscar Almer, Salvatore Gnecchi, Neale A. W. Dutton, and Robert K. Henderson, "Hypervelocity time-of-flight characterisation of a 14GS/s histogramming CMOS SPAD sensor," Proc. SPIE 10111, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XIV, 101112Z (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 03, 2017; Published: 27 January 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252271.
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