Design of the resonant optical response of ultrathin two-dimensional materials and heterostructures is enabling scientific exploration of new materials phenomena. As an example, demonstrate near-unity, broadband absorbing optoelectronic devices using sub-15 nm thick transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of molybdenum andtungsten as van der Waals semiconductor active layers. Specifically, we report that near-unity light absorption is possible in extremely thin (<15 nm) van der Waals semiconductor structures by coupling to strongly damped optical modes of semiconductor/metal heterostructures. We further fabricate Schottky junction devices using these highly absorbing heterostructures and characterize their optoelectronic performance. Our work addresses one of the key criteria to enable TMDCs as potential candidates to achieve high optoelectronic efficiency. We also report mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements of an electrostatically gated topological insulator, in which we observe several percent modulation of transmittance and reflectance of (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films as gating shifts the Fermi level. Infrared transmittance measurements of gated (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films were enabled by use of an epitaxial lift-off method for large-area transfer of TI films from the infrared-absorbing SrTiO3 growth substrates to thermal oxidized silicon substrates. We combine these optical experiments with transport measurements and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to identify the observed spectral modulation as a gate-driven transfer of spectral weight between both bulk and topological surface channels and interband and intraband channels. We develop a model for the complex permittivity of gated (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3, and find a good match to our experimental data. These results open the path for layered topological insulator materials as a new candidate for tunable infrared optics and highlight the possibility of switching topological optoelectronic phenomena between bulk and spin-polarized surface regimes.
Harry A. Atwater, "Nanophotonic design for 2D and quantum materials (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10112, Photonic and Phononic Properties of Engineered Nanostructures VII, 1011203 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 30, 2017; Published: 28 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2260429.5395679894001.
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