Plasmonic metasurfaces enhance light-matter interaction by focusing light into extremely subwavelength dimensions. These carefully designed structures have been used in extremely thin optical component which can mold the wavefront, with exciting applications in optical lenses, beam steering, and biosensing applications. Adding dynamic tunability to these devices opens up the possibility for new application in single pixel detection and 3D imaging as well as optical modulators and switches. However the existing approaches for designing active optical devices in infrared, are either slow or have small refractive index change. Integrating plasmonic metasurfaces with single-layer graphene (SLG) opens exciting opportunities for developing active plasmonic devices because the amplitude and phase of the transmitted and reflected light can be rapidly modulated by injecting charge carriers into graphene using field-effect gating. I will describe our recent experimental results demonstrating strong phase modulation of mid-infrared light. The phase shifting due to electric gating of the SLG was measured using a Michelson interferometer, and further utilized to demonstrate an electrically controlled (i.e. no moving parts) interferometry capable of measuring distances with sub-micron accuracy. Because of the potentially nanosecond-scale measurement time, active metasurfaces represent a promising platform for ultra-fast standoff detection. Finally, we demonstrate that, by the judicious choice of a strongly anisotropic metasurface, the graphene-controlled phase shift of light can be rendered polarization-dependent, thereby modulating the polarization state (e.g., the ellipticity) of the reflected light. These results pave the way for novel high-speed graphene-based optical devices and sensors such as polarimeters, ellipsometers, and frequency modulators.
Gennady B. Shvets, Shourya Dutta Gupta, and Nima Dabidian, "Shaping laser pulses with graphene-integrated metasurfaces (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10112, Photonic and Phononic Properties of Engineered Nanostructures VII, 1011206 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 30, 2017; Published: 28 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2260601.5395679931001.
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