Bottom-up fabrication of complex structures with chemically synthesized colloidal particles as building blocks pave an efficient and cost-effective way towards micro/nano photonics with unprecedented functionality and tunability. Novel properties can arise from quantum effects of colloidal particles, as well as inter-particle interactions and spatial arrangement in particle assemblies. Herein, I discuss our recent developments and applications of three types of techniques for directed assembly of colloidal particles: moiré nanosphere lithography (MNSL), bubble-pen lithography (BPL), and optothermal tweezers (OTTs). Specifically, MNSL provides an efficient approach towards creating moiré metasurface with tunable and multiband optical responses from visible to mid-infrared regime. Au moiré metasurfaces have been applied for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy, optical capture and patterning of bacteria, and photothermal denaturation of proteins. BPL is developed to pattern a variety of colloidal particles on plasmonic substrates and two-dimensional atomic-layer materials in an arbitrary manner. The laser-directed microbubble captures and immobilizes nanoparticles through coordinated actions of Marangoni convection, surface tension, gas pressure, and substrate adhesion. OTTs are developed to create dynamic nanoparticle assemblies at low optical power. Such nanoparticle assemblies have been used for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for molecular analysis in their native environments.
Yuebing Zheng, "Directed assembly of colloidal particles for micro/nano photonics (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10115, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X, 101150J (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 30, 2017; Published: 28 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250932.5395719074001.
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