We have previously introduced a femtosecond laser micromachining-based scheme for the fabrication of anisotropic waveguides in lithium niobate for use in a guided-wave acousto-optic spatial light modulator. This spatial light modulation scheme is extensible to off-plane waveguide holography via the integration of a Bragg reflection grating. In this paper, we present femtosecond laser-based direct-write approaches for the fabrication of (1) waveguide in-coupling gratings and (2) volume Bragg reflection gratings via permanent refractive index changes within the lithium niobate substrate. In combination with metal surface-acoustic-wave transducers, these direct-write approaches allow for complete fabrication of a functional spatial light modulator via femtosecond laser direct writing.
Nickolaos Savidis, Sundeep Jolly, Bianca Datta, Michael Moebius, Thrasyvoulos Karydis, Eric Mazur, Neil Gershenfeld, and V. Michael Bove, "Progress in fabrication of waveguide spatial light modulators via femtosecond laser micromachining," Proc. SPIE 10115, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics X, 101150R (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 31, 2017; Published: 20 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2250596.
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