MOEMS Deformable Mirrors (DM) are key components for next generation optical instruments implementing innovative adaptive optics systems, in existing telescopes as well as in the future ELTs. Due to the wide variety of applications, these DMs must perform at room temperature as well as in cryogenic and vacuum environment. Ideally, the MOEMS-DMs must be designed to operate in such environment. This is unfortunately usually not the case. We will present some major rules for designing / operating DMs in cryo and vacuum. Next step is to characterize with high accuracy the different DM candidates. We chose to use interferometry for the full characterization of these devices, including surface quality measurement in static and dynamical modes, at ambient and in vacuum/cryo. Thanks to our previous set-up developments, we are placing a compact cryo-vacuum chamber designed for reaching 10-6 mbar and 160K, in front of our custom Michelson interferometer, able to measure performances of the DM at actuator/segment level as well as whole mirror level, with a lateral resolution of 2μm and a sub-nanometric zresolution. Using this interferometric bench, we tested the PTT 111 DM from Iris AO: this unique and robust design uses an array of single crystalline silicon hexagonal mirrors with a pitch of 606μm, able to move in tip, tilt and piston with strokes from 5 to 7μm, and tilt angle in the range of +/- 5mrad. They exhibit typically an open-loop flat surface figure as good as < 20nm rms. A specific mount including electronic and opto-mechanical interfaces has been designed for fitting in the test chamber. Segment deformation, mirror shaping, open-loop operation are tested at room and cryo temperature and results are compared. The device could be operated successfully at 160K. An additional, mainly focus-like, 500 nm deformation is measured at 160K; we were able to recover the best flat in cryo by correcting the focus and local tip-tilts on some segments. Tests on DM with different mirror thicknesses (25μm and 50μm) and different coatings (silver and gold) are currently under way. Finally, the goal of these studies is to test DMs in cryo and vacuum conditions as well as to improve their architecture for staying efficient in harsh environment.
Frederic Zamkotsian, Patrick Lanzoni, Rudy Barette, Emmanuel Grassi, Patrick Vors, Michael Helmbrecht, Franck Marchis, and Alex Teichman, "MOEMS deformable mirror testing in cryo for future optical instrumentation," Proc. SPIE 10116, MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVI, 101160M (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2017; Published: 20 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2254755.
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