Dynamic population Bragg gratings can be recorded in the rare-earth-doped (e.g. doped with erbium or ytterbium) optical fibers with mWatt-scale cw laser power. Two-wave mixing (TWM) via such gratings is utilized in single-frequency fiber lasers and in adaptive interferometric fiber sensors with automatic stabilization of the operation point. Slow and fast light propagation can also be observed in the vicinity of narrow (~20-200Hz) spectral profile of stationary no-degenerate TWM. In particular, slow light propagation is observed for the purely amplitude grating, recorded in the erbium-doped fiber in spectral range 1510-1550nm. In its turn, in ytterbium-doped fibers at 1064nm (or in erbium-doped fiber at the wavelength below 1500nm) the dynamic grating has significant contribution of the phase component, the TWM profile has essentially asymmetric form, and both slow and fast (superluminal) light propagation is possible at different frequency off-sets between the counter-propagating interacting waves.
Serguei I. Stepanov, Marcos Plata Sánchez, and Eliseo Hernández, "Slow and fast light via two-wave mixing in the rare-earth doped optical fibers (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10119, Slow Light, Fast Light, and Opto-Atomic Precision Metrology X, 101190E (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 31, 2017; Published: 28 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2261213.5397361518001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon