Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides allows the phase shifters in Si MZ modulators to enhance the modulator efficiency. In this study, the group index and bandwidth product is maximized, the mode penetration into photonic crystal claddings and electrical series resistance are balanced, and the p-n junction profile is optimized. The device is fabricated on 200 mm wafer using KrF exposure, and practical performance (bitrates up to 32 Gbps, 3 dB extinction ratio, 1.75 V PPG voltage, <0.2 pJ/bit energy consumption, 20 nm bandwidth, 5 dB passive loss, 1 dB modulation loss) is obtained in a 200-micron device. WDM, QPSK, PAM and sub-bandgap PD operations are also demonstrated.
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