Substrate-emitting GaAs based oxide-confined 980-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with top-surface high-frequency ground-source-ground contact pads are designed, fabricated, and characterized. The devices are composed of standard top and bottom epitaxially-grown AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The top (p)DBR is capped with p-contact Ti then Au thin-film metals for uniform current injection and laser emission is through the GaAs substrate. The devices are realized on a single epitaxial wafer with n-ohmic-contacts placed on a thick (n+)GaAs buffer layer beneath the bottom (n)DBR and alternatively with the n-ohmic-contacts placed on an (n)GaAs intra-cavity layer lying within the same bottom (n)DBR. Static device parameters including threshold current and rollover current, differential resistance, peak optical output power, and wall-plug efficiency are extracted for VCSELs with oxide-aperture diameters ranging from about 3 to 9-µm and at different temperatures. At room temperature threshold currents are achieved from the sub-mA range up to about 3.5-mA with maximum output powers exceeding 15-mW. Increasing the temperature up to 85 °C slightly increases the threshold current while the peak output power is about halved. The differential resistance at the thermal rollover current is comparable for standard and intra-cavity n-metal-contacts. Small-signal analysis is performed for different bias currents, temperatures, oxide-aperture diameters, and the two n-contact options. Under optimal bias conditions the 3-dB bandwidth exceeds 15 GHz. Direct current modulation-based on-off keying signal generation is investigated from 10 to 40-Gb/s. The influence of an anti-reflection-coated substrate, a thinned substrate, and the combination of both is investigated and discussed.
R. Rosales, H. Schmeckebier, C. Boldt, P. Moser, M. E. Warren, R. F. Carson, and J. A. Lott, "Comparative study of contact geometry for bottom-emitting 980-nm VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 10122, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXI, 101220C (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 02, 2017; Published: 25 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253361.
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