Modulation rates of VCSELs within multimode fiber links are now 25Gbps as standardized by both IEEE and Infiniband. Yet the need continues to advance the serial data rates to 50Gbps and higher to more readily support 100Gbps links with manageable fiber count. At these higher modulation rates the multimode VCSEL dynamics cannot be accurately modeled as single mode sources coupled into a MMF modeled as a simple filter. Specifically, our recent experimental results demonstrate the limitations of the standard mode partition noise and relative intensity noise models. By direct measurement of VCSEL mode dynamics we have shown modal statistics to be comprised of a mix of both correlated and anti-correlated components with a correlation time of a few symbol periods at 100G. Through simulations and experiments we demonstrate that MPN is significantly over estimated in the standard modeling tools and that RIN is enhanced by fiber dispersive effects, an effect not currently captured by current standard modeling methods and potentially underestimated.
Stephen E. Ralph and Justin Lavrencik, "VCSEL modal dynamics and implications for 100Gbps links," Proc. SPIE 10122, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXI, 101220E (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 02, 2017; Published: 25 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2257030.
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