Record-large modulation bandwidths of 30 GHz and larger have been achieved with state-of-the art directly and indirectly modulated VCSELs and VCSEL arrays. One next big challenge is to make VCSELs viable for integration onto silicon while maintaining large bandwidth values. Various integration schemes of VCSELs might require process variations potentially detrimental for large modulation bandwidths. We present and compare directly modulated oxide-confined top-emitting 980-nm VCSELs processed from one single epitaxial wafer design into four different extracavity and intracavity contact variations.
Philip Moser, Holger Schmeckebier, Marcin Gębski, Patrycja Śpiewak, Ricardo Rosales, Kilian Moser, Michał Wasiak, and James A. Lott, "Intracavity and extracavity-contacted 980-nm oxide-confined VCSELs for optical interconnects and integration," Proc. SPIE 10122, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXI, 101220J (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 02, 2017; Published: 25 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2256177.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon