Terahertz quantum-cascade vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSELs) are made possible through the development of amplifying reflectarray metasurfaces. The metasurface is made up of sub-wavelength arrays of antenna coupled sub-cavities loaded with quantum-cascade active material. The QC-VECSEL approach allows scaling of laser power while maintaining a high quality, near diffraction limited beam - something which has been a long standing challenge for THz quantum-cascade lasers with sub-wavelength metallic waveguides. The latest results of cavity and metasurface engineering are presented, including the demonstration of a focusing reflectarray metasurface that enables a "flat-optics" hemispherical VECSEL cavity, with improved geometric stability and a Gaussian profile beam with beam quality parameter of M2=1.3.
Benjamin S. Williams, Luyao Xu, Christopher A. Curwen, John L. Reno, and Tatsuo Itoh, "Terahertz quantum-cascade metasurface VECSELs (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10123, Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers XVI, 1012311 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2017; Published: 20 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251447.5398643855001.
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