A novel design for high brightness planar technology light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and LED on-wafer arrays on absorbing substrates is proposed. The design integrates features of passive dielectric cavity deposited on top of an oxide– semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the p–n junction with a light emitting region is introduced into the top semiconductor λ/4 DBR period. A multilayer dielectric structure containing a cavity layer and dielectric DBRs is further processed by etching into a micrometer–scale pattern. An oxide–confined aperture is further amended for current and light confinement. We study the impact of the placement of the active region into the maximum or minimum of the optical field intensity and study an impact of the active region positioning on light extraction efficiency. We also study an etching profile composed of symmetric rings in the etched passive cavity over the light emitting area. The bottom semiconductor is an AlGaAs–AlAs multilayer DBR selectively oxidized with the conversion of the AlAs layers into AlOx to increase the stopband width preventing the light from entering the semiconductor substrate. The approach allows to achieve very high light extraction efficiency in a narrow vertical angle keeping the reasonable thermal and current conductivity properties. As an example, a micro-LED structure has been modeled with AlGaAs-AlAs or AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs and an active region based on InGaAlP quantum well(s) emitting in the orange spectral range at ~610 nm. A passive dielectric SiO2 cavity is confined by dielectric Ta2O5/SiO2 and AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs. Cylindrically–symmetric structures with multiple ring patterns are modeled. It is demonstrated that the extraction coefficient of light to the air can be increased from 1.3% up to above 90% in a narrow vertical angle (full width at half maximum (FWHM) below 20°). For very small oxide–confined apertures ~100nm the narrowing of the FWHM for light extraction can be reduced down to 5°. Consequently high efficiency high brightness arrays of micro-LEDs becomes possible. For single emitters the approach is particularly interesting for oscillator strength engineering allowing high speed data transmission and for single photonics applying single quantum dot (QD) emitters and allowing >90% coupling of the emission into single mode fiber. We also note that for longer wavelength (~1300nm) QDs the thickness of the layers and surface patterns significantly increase allowing greatly reduced processing tolerances and applying further simplifications due to the possibility of using high contrast GaAs-AlOx DBRs.
N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, J.-R. Kropp, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, and N. N. Ledentsov, "Resonant cavity light–emitting diodes based on dielectric passive cavity structures," Proc. SPIE 10124, Light-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Devices, and Applications for Solid State Lighting XXI, 101240O (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 31, 2017; Published: 16 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253089.
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