Inorganic light emitting diodes (LEDs) serve as bright pixel-level emitters in displays, from indoor/outdoor video walls with pixel sizes ranging from one to thirty millimeters to micro displays with more than one thousand pixels per inch. Pixel sizes that fall between those ranges, roughly 50 to 500 microns, are some of the most commercially significant ones, including flat panel displays used in smart phones, tablets, and televisions. Flat panel displays that use inorganic LEDs as pixel level emitters (μILED displays) can offer levels of brightness, transparency, and functionality that are difficult to achieve with other flat panel technologies. Cost-effective production of μILED displays requires techniques for precisely arranging sparse arrays of extremely miniaturized devices on a panel substrate, such as transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. Here we present lab-scale demonstrations of transfer printed μILED displays and the processes used to make them. Demonstrations include passive matrix μILED displays that use conventional off-the shelf drive ASICs and active matrix μILED displays that use miniaturized pixel-level control circuits from CMOS wafers. We present a discussion of key considerations in the design and fabrication of highly miniaturized emitters for μILED displays.
Erich J. Radauscher, Matthew Meitl, Carl Prevatte, Salvatore Bonafede, Robert Rotzoll, David Gomez, Tanya Moore, Brook Raymond, Ronald Cok, Alin Fecioru, António Jose Trindade, Brent Fisher, Scott Goodwin, Paul Hines, George Melnik, Sam Barnhill, and Christopher A. Bower, "Miniaturized LEDs for flat-panel displays," Proc. SPIE 10124, Light-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Devices, and Applications for Solid State Lighting XXI, 1012418 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 02, 2017; Published: 16 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2252857.
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