We present a simple and flexible method of generating various vectorial vortex beams (VVBs) based on the scheme of double modulations from a single liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). In this configuration, a half-wave plate (HWP) placed in front of the SLM is first used to control the weights of linear polarization components of incident light. Then, we respectively encode two orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates displayed on each half of the SLM onto each of the linear components of light. This yields the generation of VVB fields spanned by a pair of linearly polarized OAM eigenstates. In order to convert polarization bases from the linear pair into another orthogonal pair, a quarter-wave plate (QWP) placed behind the SLM is used. This enables us to generate VVBs spanned by any pair of orthogonally polarized OAM eigenstates. Generally, the light states of polarization (SOP) can be presented as a geodesic path located on the plane perpendicular to the axis connecting the pair of bases used on the Poincaré sphere. The light property is adjustable depending on both slow axes of HWP and QWP, as well as via computer generated holograms. To validate generated beams, two measurement procedures are subsequently applied. First, Stokes polarimetry is used to measure the light SOP over the transverse plane. Next, a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to measure the OAM charge. Both the simulated and experimental results are shown to be in a good qualitative agreement. In addition, both polarization patterns and OAM charges can be controlled independently using the proposed method.
Ching-Han Yang and Andy Ying-Guey Fuh, "Generation of optical vortices with controllable topological charges and polarization patterns," Proc. SPIE 10125, Emerging Liquid Crystal Technologies XII, 101250P (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2017; Published: 15 February 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2249452.
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