Despite years of research and development, integrated laser sources remain a bottleneck for silicon photonics (SiPh). Integration of lasers into SiPh can be categorized as hybrid, heterogeneous, or monolithic. Hybrid approaches are the most mature. One example is the co-packaging of lasers with micro-optics and subsequent coupling of laser light to silicon waveguides. More scalable hybrid approaches include butt coupling of lasers and silicon waveguides without the use of micro-optics. This could be accomplished with two chips mounted side by side on a common carrier or by flip-chip bonding of laser chips into recesses adjacent to silicon waveguides. Heterogeneous approaches involve the intimate merging of traditionally incompatible materials and subsequent co-fabrication of these materials to form devices. This approach allows for best-in-class materials selection, however, co-fabrication requires complex fabrication processes. The term monolithic ordinarily refers to a single substrate and materials compatible with the substrate material. Germanium on silicon could be considered a monolithic approach, as could growth of III-V materials (such as indium phosphide (InP) and gallium arsenide) on silicon. This paper summarizes a novel 3D hybrid integration approach that is scalable, low cost, reliable, and that demonstrates superior thermal performance. The approach is based on flip-chip bonding and vertical coupling between InP and silicon waveguides. For the InP waveguide, vertical emission is achieved with a total internal reflection turning mirror. For the silicon waveguide, vertical coupling is achieved with a grating coupler. The InP chip is flip-chip bonded directly to the silicon substrate providing an effective heat sink.
Jonathan Klamkin, "3D hybrid integration for active silicon photonics (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10131, Next-Generation Optical Networks for Data Centers and Short-Reach Links IV, 1013102 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 31, 2017; Published: 26 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2251062.5387787117001.
Conference Presentations are recordings of oral presentations given at SPIE conferences and published as part of the proceedings. They include the speaker's narration with video of the slides and animations. Most include full-text papers. Interactive, searchable transcripts and closed captioning are now available for most presentations.
Search our growing collection of more than 22,000 conference presentations, including many plenaries and keynotes.